1. What is History ?
- The study of the past is called History The English word 'History' is derived from the Greek word 'historia' meaning research, inquiry or investigation. Thus, the knowledge acquired by investigation is known as historia'.
- The Greek historian Herodotus (484 BC-425 BC) was the first real historian of the world. He wrote only one book The Histories (430 BC). 'The Histories describes the background and events of the Graeco-Persian/Greek- Iranian Wars. First of all the Roman philosopher Cicero (106 BC-43 BC) called him "The Father of History.
- The German historian Leopold von Ranke (1795- 1886 AD) is known as 'The Father of Modern History' According to Ranke, the task of historian was to describe the past as it actually was [`wie es eingentlich gewesen' (German words)-what it (the past) actually was (English translation)].
- The German philosopher Hegel (1770-1831 AD) once said 'History repeats itself, later on German economist and philosopher Karl Marx (1818-83 AD) extended the line: "History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce.
- According to British historian E. H. Carr (1892- 1982 AD): "History is an unending dialogue between past and present."
2. A System of Dating?
- BC and AD: BC is the acronym of Before Christ. This is an English phrase meaning 'Before the birth of Jesus) Christ'. So, the years before the birth of Jesus Christ is knownas 'Before Christ' and it is denoted as BC in short. e.g.:Gautama Buddha was born in 563 BC and died in 483 BC. Alexander the Great was born in 356 BC and died in 323 BC.
- AD is the acronym of Anno Domini. This is a Latin phrase meaning 'In the year of the Lord (Jesus Christ). So, the years begin with the birth of Jesus Christ is known as 'Anno Domini', and it is denoted as AD in short. e.g.: Jesus Christ was crucified in 30 AD. Kushana ruler Kanishka was ascended the throne in 78 AD. Hazrat Muhammad was born in 570 AD and died in 632 AD.
- Time Line: The line displaying the events of past time is called Time Line'.
- From the above-mentioned time line, it is clear that the years before the birth of Christ have counted backward, viz. ...⬅️ 500 BC ⬅️....⬅️5 BC-⬅️4 BC⬅️3 BC⬅️-2 BC⬅️-1 BC.
- The meaning of one year before 1 BC is 2 BC, the meaning of one year before 2 BC is 3 BC, the meaning of one year before 3 BC is 4 BC, the meaning of one year before 4 BC is 5 BC. In other words, firstly the year of 5 BC passed, after that 4 BC came, after that 3 BC, after that 2 BC and lastly 1 BC appeared. In the mathematical language, it is like backward counting (100,99,98, and so on). Now if anyone raises a question that which year is first one and which year is last one in 500 BC and 2,000 BC. Then right answer will be 2,000 BCis first one and 500 BC is last one. It means firstly 2,000 BC passed and after that 500 BC appeared.
- From the above-mentioned time line, it is also clear that the years after the birth of Jesus Christ have counted forward. It implies that the meaning of one year after 1 AD is 2 AD, one year after 2 AD is 3 AD, one year after 3 AD is 4 AD, one year after 4 AD is 5 AD. In the mathematical language, it is like forward counting ,2,3 and so on). Now if anyone raises a question that which year is first one and which year is last one in 500 AD and 2,000 AD then right answer will be 500 ADD is first one and 2,000 AD is last one. It means firstly the year 500 AD passed and after that 2,000 AD appeared.
- Time Glossary: The glossary relating to time is known as Time Glossary.
- First decade of 20 century AD means- the period from 1901 AD to 1910 AD.
- Fifth decade of 20th century AD means- the period from 1941 AD to 1950 AD.
- Eighth decade of 20th century AD means the period from 1971 AD to 1980 AD.
- Last decade of 20th century AD means the period from 1991 AD to 2000 AD.
- First half of 20th century AD means- from 1901 AD to 1950 AD.
- Second half of 20th century AD means from 1951 AD to 2000 AD.
- 6th century BC means - 600 BC to 501 BC
- 4th century BC means - 400 BC to 301 BC
- 16t century AD means 1501 AD to 1600 AD
- 20 century AD means 1901 AD to 2000 AD .
- Second Millenium BC -2000 BC-1001 BC
- First Millenium BC - 1000 BC-1 BC
- First Millenium AD- 1 AD-1000 AD
- Second Millenium AD-1001 AD-2000 AD